The Paris Climate Agreement, a global treaty aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the effects of climate change, was adopted by 196 countries in December 2015. The agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016, with the aim of limiting the global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
Under the Paris Agreement, each country in the world has made a commitment to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, known as a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). These commitments are reviewed every five years to ensure that they reflect the latest scientific evidence and technology developments, and that they are ambitious enough to keep global warming within safe limits.
As of 2021, 191 parties have submitted their NDCs, outlining their commitments for the period of 2021 to 2030. The commitments made by each country vary depending on its level of economic development, its historical contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, and its capacity to undertake mitigation and adaptation actions.
Some of the key country commitments under the Paris Agreement include:
China, the world`s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, pledged to peak its emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. The country also aims to increase the share of non-fossil fuels in its primary energy consumption to around 25% by 2030.
The United States, the second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, announced its intention to cut emissions by 50-52% below 2005 levels by 2030. This is a significant increase compared to its previous commitment under the Obama administration, which aimed to reduce emissions by 26-28% below 2005 levels by 2025.
The European Union pledged to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% below 1990 levels by 2030, compared to its previous target of a 40% reduction. The EU also aims to achieve climate neutrality by 2050.
India, the third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, pledged to reduce the emissions intensity of its gross domestic product by 33-35% below 2005 levels by 2030, and to increase the share of non-fossil fuels in its energy mix to 40% by 2030.
Brazil, which has the highest level of deforestation in the world, pledged to reach climate neutrality by 2050, and to end illegal deforestation by 2030.
Japan pledged to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, and to reduce emissions by 46% below 2013 levels by 2030.
Russia pledged to reduce emissions by 30% below 1990 levels by 2030, and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.
The Paris Climate Agreement country commitments are an important step towards mitigating the effects of climate change, and ensuring a sustainable future for the planet. However, it is important that these commitments are followed through with concrete actions, and that countries continue to work together towards a common goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and protecting the environment.